Filling Gaps in Media: Madrassas Evolution
In Pakistan, the role of media has always been challenging and vital in the context of social change. During the military regime of General Pervez Musharraf, several TV channels were released license and after 9/11 attack, electronic as well as print media both have played significant role to support war against terrorism (Schechter, 2003). After 9/11 and preceding years, Pakistani media, however, has taken a absolutely new turn and has been determined to create a terrible situation in the country in the name of freedom of press. However, it is often commented that in Pakistan media is biased (Hagerty, 2005); and during the war against terrorism, it has been showing the negative image of Madrassas influenced by western media. In Pakistan, Media has always been an extraordinary united in terms of image building and gaining the interest. The role of media, in Pakistan is described as playing with negative models of image in which channels are intended to go so fierce that they are increasingly using negative tools to increase their revenue rather than playing positive role and using their power of accessible for everyone. Electronic media has been determined to show great affinity of Madrassas with the militants’ education and hub of militants’ activities (Schechter, 2003). Media in Pakistan has always shown the closer relationship of Madrassas between the government decisions. However, militant training provided in Madrassas is not possible with the cooperation of higher government officials (Rabasa, 2004). Perfect Writer UK
Relationship between the State, Media and Religion in Pakistan
The emergence of revolutionary and new media period has changed the face of every field. There has been observed immense influence of media over every aspect of life including education, politics, IT, and unusual but religion as well (Akhtar, 2000). As a result of media influence over these fields, it has created a relationship among each other. Media has been playing an important role in the state affairs and politics (Schechter, 2003). This involvement of media is beyond the communication of news; the modern and new media has offered provision of such a platform from where political leaders and political parties are able to communicate their mandate for the purpose of election campaigns (Akhtar, 2000). Moreover, higher government officials also utilize the media for status-quo. Media through its 24 hours coverage has power to manipulate the people’s opinions and views (Meyer& Moor, 2006). Get help with assignment writing service by Perfect Writer UK
Religion has long been considered as not-media-topic; and there were few who were aware of use of media in terms of religion. In today’s world, where mostly states are secular and prefer to ignore religious discussion on air, there were few non-secular states that use the media for religious plate form. After 1950, with the invention of TV and other means of media such as radio, were considered as more powerful than print media due to the fact that many people are not able to read or in some cases cannot afford to purchase a newspaper or magazine just for news (Akhtar, 2000); different medium of media have been used for different purposes except religion.
Between 1961 and 1990, Muslim world has been center of international politics which persuaded the western world to consider over the importance of problems regarding the Muslims world (Haynes, 2005). After 9/11 the involvement of media into religion observed tremendously; this role of media in relation to religion was meant to represent a systematic understanding of Islam, its beliefs and ideology of Islam religion in perspective of political role of Muslim World (Hagerty, 2005). Hire dissertation help online by well-versed writers
In Pakistan, religion, state and media have great affiliation due to the fact that Pakistan is an Islamic state and its governmental and political affairs are grandly intact with the concept of religion (Shah, 1996). Since the creation of Pakistan there was two largest newspapers viz., Jang and Dawn and after the advent of television (Akhtar, 2000), there had been only one TV channel for five decades as long as after 2001 license for private channels were granted by the government. After 9/11 and during war against terrorism, Pakistani media both electronic and print media seemed to imitate western media (Meyer& Moor, 2006).
Even though in Pakistan, religion is not taboo topic and common people are aware of basic and fundamentals principles of Islam (The Journal of Asian studies, 2002); in this scenario yet media and specifically electronic media contributed magnificently to manipulate religious perception of common people. In Pakistani society, religion and politics are always intimated as a result of close affinity of common people with religion therefore political figure apparently uses the religious belief for the political and state interest (Babb, Susan& Wadley, 1998). Besides, media also understand the significance of religion in the daily life of public and in order to make a difference for their medium many channels and newspapers are engage in exploiting the religion with politics (Meyer& Moor, 2006). Buy essay writing help in UK
The abuse of freedom by media in terms of regional and national security issues have made the government to take actions and ban those channels who intend not to bear the responsibility of responsible freedom (Schechter, 2003). However, media seems to taking a revolutionary and challenging turn in the history of the country; where there are several private channels on air, foreign movies are also released in the cinemas to make cinema industry profitable. For the freedom of media different quotation used is‘freedom of expression’ which empowers the individual and collective right to any group to express him; this freedom seems to endanger the national security of the state. After 9/11 when Islam was associated with terrorism and Muslims were called as terrorists; it was media which contributed in spreading this perception and role of Pakistani media was an imitation of western media (Meyer& Moors, 2006). Buy thesis writing help online
Religion, Nationalism, Identity, the State and the Media
According to Rourke& Boyer (2008), many social scientists have supported the perspective of nationalist and religious ideology helps the nations to understand the expanding light of modernity. National and religious ideology is meant to create an identity of the group; and in contemporary politics (Binder, 1963); there has been relationship of religion, nationalism, state identity and media. However, studies have suggested that identities given by religion and nationalism are strongly implicated in mass education. However, Nationalism is a modern ideology that supports the creation of particular societal organization known as nation states. Rourke and Boyer (2008) define Nationalism with certain characteristics, such as a group of people with same history, purpose, and from same territory; though nationalism is the name of a feeling among a group which unites the individuals to strive for a specific goal and establish values about what good and bad is for them (Rourke and Boyer, 2008). Nationalism and religion are often interrelated as religion is one of the characteristics of nationalism; and gives identity to persons and groups through nationalistic myths and custom and national history, culture and language and the awareness among individuals of the common origins, historical experience and important accomplishments among other nations and making differences between them. In addition, religion as a alternate by itself and derived and tool of nationalism, can but does not require to have a significant role in the creation of a nation. Get cheap coursework writing service on just one click
For Pakistan, nationalism and religion makes different identity. However, Pakistan was created not on the basis of nationalism but rather on religion base. In Pakistan, the concept of nationalism was observed of two patterns; one that had base on religion and another which was based on the territorial. After the creation of Pakistan, state was comprised of four different provinces which nationally present four different nationalities within state. The role of religious politics after 1947 was dimmed and politics on the basis of territorial nationalities was emerged. Differences at large became the identity of groups like individual from Sindh is Sindhi and individual from Punjab is Punjabi. This level of difference was seen at governmental and poetical level for making the situation worse media played its distinct role which intends to signify the differences of nationalities. After 2001 when several channels were opened; channels which represents specific language of a territory were also opened. Get professional writing help according to your need
Nationalism and religion with sub-divisions (Shia, Sunni) continue to create national threats for Pakistan internal security (Leifer, 2000). Pakistani government has been ignoring the key internal issues for many years which continued to create hazardous situation and at its worse brought about civil operations within the state (Allen, 1992). In addition, Pakistani media seems to fail to unify the different cultural and linguistic group; and rather signified the differences. Religious extremism is incorporated with nationalism worsening the present situation in the country (Babb& Wadley, 1998). The role of media in regard to religious extremism observed not as such inactive as with the national issue (Meyer& Moor, 2006). However, media has been doing an effort to unify the Islamic ideology with the different groups in the state who share same religious values (Schechter, 2003).